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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| March-April  | Volume 50 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 18, 2017

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Unusual presentation of a late complication in a polyacrylamide gel-injected breast
Hui-Ling Peng, Yi-Ho Cheng, Yu-Hsien Lin, Chun-Hung Ko
March-April 2017, 50(2):77-80
Implant migration is a known complication of hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) mammoplasty. We report the case of a female patient with an undisclosed history of bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections 10 years ago. The patient presented with abdominal pain and rapid gel migration into the abdominal and pelvic walls after sneezing. Computed tomography and sonography were performed, but the results were inconclusive. The diagnosis of PAAG migration was not made until the patient complained of progressive shrinkage of her right breast and disclosed the history of PAAG mammoplasty. A subsequent magnetic resonance imaging study confirmed the diagnosis. Gel migration was successfully treated using endoscopic lavage and breast debridement. Familiarity with the radiological features of PAAG migration and a thorough examination of the patient's history are mandatory for the accurate diagnosis of this complication.
  1 1,091 108
Management of primary neoplasms of the appendix
Shen-Lin Wang, Ming-Jui Yang, Chin-Tsung Ting, Po-Chun Chen
March-April 2017, 50(2):81-84
Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma is a rare disease, constituting <0.5% of all neoplasms of the gastrointestinal origin. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma presents classically as an inflammatory condition such as acute appendicitis, and its preoperative diagnosis is difficult. In this case series, we report the cases of five patients with appendiceal neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic resection of appendiceal tumors and have thus far been healthy without any evidence of recurrence. Opinions regarding the most appropriate management of appendiceal tumors are variable. Recently, laparoscopic resection of appendiceal tumors has been added as a surgical option. If adequate preoperative assessment and definite diagnosis can be performed, laparoscopic resection of appendiceal tumors might become a feasible surgical option instead of open surgery in selected patients.
  - 918 82
Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast with synchronous colon metastasis
Zhu-Jun Loh, Kuo-Ting Lee, Wei-Pang Chung, Wen-Chung Chen, Hsueh-Li Kuo, Po-Jun Chen, Hsi-Huei Lu, Hui-Ping Hsu
March-April 2017, 50(2):69-73
Secondary colon malignancy is rare and has a nonspecific presentation. Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy that metastasizes to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we present the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with breast cancer and synchronous colon metastasis through a positive result obtained from stool occult blood screening. Colonoscopy revealed a subepithelial tumor of the colon. Biopsy revealed metastatic cancer with positive cytokeratin and GATA-binding protein 3 staining, as well as negative caudal-type homeobox 2 staining. A palpable right breast mass with nipple retraction was found, and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) was diagnosed. Multiple bone, left adrenal gland, para-aortic lymph node, and contralateral breast metastases were detected. Multimodality treatment involving systemic chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and modified radical mastectomy was applied. In our clinical experience, colon metastasis from breast cancer is rare and usually mimics primary colon cancer. High-alert speculation and aggressive biopsy for patients with abnormal GI bleeding are indicated for diagnosis. Patients with colon metastasis from ILC of the breast have a poor prognosis. Therefore, multimodality treatments should be applied to improve their prognosis.
  - 1,424 121
Isolated tuberculous epididymitis
Shao-Ming Chen
March-April 2017, 50(2):74-76
Isolated tuberculous epididymitis (ITE) is an uncommon disease that is often incorrectly diagnosed as the more common epididymo-orchitis. ITE is usually treated using long-term general parenteral or oral antibiotics. The nonspecific nature of laboratory tests for ITE renders its diagnosis challenging. Here, we report the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with a 6-month history of the left scrotal swelling. He was initially treated with general oral antibiotics but without any noticeable improvement. On the basis of his symptoms and signs, laboratory test and imaging results, and biopsy, we finally made a diagnosis of ITE. After receiving appropriate treatment, the patient was cured completely without the need of surgical intervention.
  - 1,829 139
Prognostic effects of O6-Methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation in high-grade glioma patients with carmustine wafer implants
Mao-Yu Chen, Ping-Ching Pai, Shih Ming Jung, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Chen-Nen Chang, Kuo-Chen Wei
March-April 2017, 50(2):45-51
Background: Local chemotherapy with carmustine (BCNU) wafer implantation has survival benefits for malignant glioma patients. However, available data regarding its association with O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) are scant. Purpose: To evaluate whether MGMT hypermethylation has prognostic effects in malignant glioma patients with interstitial BCNU wafer implants. Methods: From September 2004 to August 2007, 32 patients with malignant gliomas underwent surgical resection plus interstitial BCNU wafer implantation at our hospital. Results and Conclusion: BCNU wafer implantation was performed in 18 patients with newly diagnosed gliomas and in 14 with recurrent gliomas. All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of ≥70. The median age was 51 years. At a median follow-up of 31 months, the 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 43% and 22%, respectively. OS rates did not significantly differ between the newly diagnosed and recurrent patients. Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 19 (59%) patients, and MGMT hypermethylation was noted in 13 (41%) tumor specimens. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with MGMT hypermethylation in their tumors and gross total tumor removal have more favorable survival rates (P = 0.03).
  - 910 106
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for hemorrhagic radiation cystitis
Kung-Hung Lin, Hui-Chieh Lee, Wen-Shyan Huang, Po-Wei Huang, Seng-Chung Ke, Man-Gang Lee
March-April 2017, 50(2):52-56
Background: Radiation cystitis with macroscopic hematuria is a frustrating clinical problem for urologists. Since 1985, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been applied as a treatment for radiation cystitis with macroscopic hematuria; numerous studies have shown that this treatment has favorable results. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the HBOT affected the clinical outcomes and treatment of hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC). Methods: Between November 1989 and June 2014, 42 patients (39 women and three men) with HRC were treated with hyperbaric oxygen at a pressure of 2.5 atmospheres absolute, breathing 100% O2for 120 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. Results: After an average of 38 hyperbaric oxygen sessions, macroscopic hematuria was completely halted in 35 patients (83.3%) and markedly decreased in three patients (7.1%). A comparison of cystoscopic findings before and after HBOT showed significant decreases in both hemorrhagic sites and telangiectasis of the bladder mucosa. The mean follow-up was 20.7 months (range: 3–49 months). No cases exhibited evidence of barotrauma or oxygen toxicity. One patient underwent a urodynamic study both before and after HBOT, with several changes in bladder function observed after HBOT: urine peak flow increased from 12.8 mL/s before HBOT to 15.0 mL/s after HBOT and urine mean flow increased from 6.5 mL/s to 8.9 mL/s. Urine voiding time decreased from 40.0 s to 28.0 s, urine flow time from 39.0 s to 28.0 s, time to peak flow from 15.0 s to 8.0 s, and voided volume from 251 mL to 248 mL. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that early application of HBOT is a safe and effective treatment method for HRC. Whether HBOT is beneficial to urinary bladder function requires further study with a larger patient cohort enrolled.
  - 1,760 217
Callus formation in bone fractures combined with brain injury in rat
Yu-Ping Chen, Hsin-Chin Shih
March-April 2017, 50(2):57-62
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the speed of bony union and the serum levels of biomarkers in the setting of bone fractures combined with brain injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: sham, brain injury, bone fracture, and bone fracture plus brain injury groups. The serum levels of biochemical markers, namely, nerve growth factor (NGF), Wnt-3a, Dickkopf-related protein-1, receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured on the days 1, 3, 7, and 14 following injury. Bony union was evaluated using radiographs every week for 6 weeks. Results: Compared with the brain injury group and bone fracture group, the radiographs of the bone fracture plus brain injury group revealed enhanced callus formations in week 2. From week 3, the callus formation did not differ significantly among the groups. The serum levels of the biomarkers varied at different time points. The serum levels of NGF on days 1 and 3, Wnt-3a on days 3 and 14, and ACTH on days 1, 3, and 7 were significantly higher in the bone fracture plus brain injury group than in the bone fracture group. Conclusions: Brain injury increases callus formation in simultaneous bone fracture. Considering the time point, early NGF, Wnt-3a, and ACTH elevation might be associated with early callus formation enhancement. The results indicate that these brain injury-induced biomarkers might play crucial role in accelerating bone healing.
  - 1,630 117
Neurosurgery for sinusitis-related and sinusitis-unrelated intracranial abscess
Guan-Chyuan Wang, Kuan-Pin Chen, Chain-Fa Su, Yen-Ta Huang, Tsung-Lang Chiu
March-April 2017, 50(2):63-68
Background: Sinusitis-related intracranial abscess (ICA) is a rare but serious complication and is different from those of sinusitis-unrelated ICA. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the differences in bacteriology, host factors, presentations, and prognoses between cases of sinusitis-related and sinusitis-unrelated ICA. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital (Hualien, Taiwan), during January 2010–August 2014, and enrolled patients with pathologically proven postsurgery ICA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The number of patients with sinusitis-related and sinusitis-unrelated ICA was 10 and 17, respectively. Compared with sinusitis-unrelated ICA patients, significantly more patients with sinusitis-related ICA experienced cirrhosis, ophthalmic abnormalities, and frontal and cavernous sinus involvement. Among all ICA patients, diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased mortality risk. Patients with DM exhibited the highest positive culture rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusion: Frontal sinusitis is associated with an increased risk of intracranial invasion. DM and liver cirrhosis patients exhibited the highest mortality rates among all ICA patients. Patient comorbidity should be considered when prescribing antibiotics for treatment.
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