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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 50-57

Occult aortic fistulation affects late outcome of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms after emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair in patients with initial hematemesis/hemoptysis

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chung-Dann Kan
Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/fjs.fjs_80_17

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Background: Although thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has been widely used as the first choice of emergency surgical procedure for ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAAs), the risk factors of adverse outcome have less been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of patients undergoing TEVAR for rDTAA and to identified risk factors of worse prognoses. Materials and Methods: The surgical outcome of TEVAR for rDTAA in National Cheng Kung University Hospital was retrospectively analyzed. From February 2008 to December 2016, 27 patients were included, after excluding patients with traumatic aortic injury, infected aneurysm, esophageal malignancy-related aortoesophageal fistula or those in association with aortic dissection. Results: There were 5 (18.5%) 30-day mortalities, including 3 (11.1%) intraoperative deaths. Seven additional patients died during follow-up and the estimated survival rate at 1 year and 3 years was 61.3 ± 9.7% and 50.5 ± 10.6%, respectively. Among these patients with late mortality, five patients presented with hematemesis or hemoptysis preoperatively. Aortoesophageal fistula was confirmed in three patients by esophagogastroduodenoscopy presenting with hematemesis. These patients underwent subsequent open debridement along with esophagectomy after TEVAR and remained alive during follow-up. On the other hand, those with possible occult aortic fistulations that were not detected by endoscopic examinations and not surgically managed had worse late outcomes (P = 0.058). Conclusions: For patients with rDTAA having hematemesis or hemoptysis as part of the initial presentations, careful survey for possible aorta-related fistulation is important. Although definite diagnosis of fistulation might be difficult, surgical exploration for hematoma evacuation, adequate debridement, and repair of intraoperative identified fistulation should be advocated.

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