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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-23

Prophylatic efficacy of dexamethasone, ketamine and dexmedetomidine against intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting under spinal anesthesia

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Gynecology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Students Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Esmail Moshiri
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/fjs.fjs_37_18

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Background: This study aims to compare the prophylactic effects of dexamethasone, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine versus normal saline on intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) associated with cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 140 patients scheduled for elective CS and was assigned randomly to four groups. The first group received 20 cc normal saline; the second group received dexamethasone at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg; the third group received ketamine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg; and the fourth group received IV dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg). Nausea and vomiting score was measured by visual analog scale and sedation levels by Ramsay sedation scale (RSS). Results: There was a significant difference among the four groups in PONV scores immediately after and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h following administration of the drug (P = 0.001). Nausea and vomiting score was the lowest in the dexmedetomidine group. Significant differences were observed in Ramsey score at the 10th–110th min following administration, and the dexmedetomidine group had a higher RSS than the other groups. The incidence of metoclopramide intervention in three experimental groups is comparable. Heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure show decreasing trend following spinal anesthesia in dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion: The tested groups (dexamethasone, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine) all present a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting than the placebo group. In addition, dexmedetomidine provides the best efficacies in the reduction of nausea and vomiting but is more liable in lowering blood pressure and HRs. We recommend that dexmedetomidine is the drug of choice in decreasing nausea and vomiting for patients undergoing CS with spinal anesthesia.

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